Count a case as having a complying action if the violator has taken, or will take as a result of the enforcement action at least one complying action. Since FY03, for GPRA reporting purposes, complying actions are grouped into two general types: direct actions to reduce, eliminate or treat pollutants (also called physical); and facility management and information management practices (also called non-physical). Starting in FY 2005 HQ added another category for preventative complying actions. If a case has a complying action in direct we count the case as having a direct environmental benefit. If a case has either or both preventative or FMIP actions, we count that case as involving environmental management practice (EMP) for GPRA purposes.